Forecasting turkeys: Bad predictions since 1970
In "Forecasting Turkeys" part I, I walked you through some of the worst forecast busts from the founding of the Weather Bureau (now the National Weather Service) in 1870 to 1969. Now, I highlight some of the most horrendous prediction failures in the modern age of weather forecasting.
THE PRESIDENT'S DAY STORM OF 18-20 FEBRUARY 1979
Now called the Presidents' Day Storm I, since a second Presidents' Day Storm has now occurred in recent years (February 2003), this storm developed, as might be expected, under weak El Niño conditions but only a slightly negative NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation), with deep Arctic air in place over much of the East. Temperatures in the single digits and teens were common in the DC area during the progress of the storm, which was considered to be the worst since the Knickerbocker Storm of 1922. (1)
Since numerical forecasting models significantly downplayed the developing storm system, the NWS forecast initially called for only 4-8 inches of snow in the DC area, far less than the 19 inches that actually fell (officially at Reagan National Airport).
Ultimately, the storm system developed a hurricane-like eye off the mid-Atlantic coast and, after hitting the New York region with about a foot of snow, skirted off toward the east-northeast, sparing most of New England.
THE VETERAN'S DAY SNOWSTORM OF 1987
In terms of unpredictability, this storm was one of the most unusual storms to hit the Washington area in recent decades, as it developed very suddenly, causing extremely heavy snowfall rates, partly from convective cells moving northeastward over the southeastern counties. It was the heaviest snowfall on record for so early in the season and was recently covered in a Veteran's Day post by Jason Samenow.
THE EAST COAST SNOWSTORM OF 24-25 JANUARY 2000
At the time, the winter of 1999-2000 was the warmest on record in the country as a whole, although during the last half of January, wintry conditions did make an appearance in the Northeast.
It was during this period that one of the more noticeable numerical prediction model failures of recent years occurred: up until six hours prior to the storm's onset in the DC area, little or no snow was predicted. A last-minute media release by the NWS on the night of 24 January provided for a substantial upgrade of the storm's impact on the DC to Boston urban corridor. The damage had been done, however, as most people never got the word and held the various media responsible.
Ultimately, this storm had the most serious effect on the entire area from western North Carolina to northern New England, with heaviest accumulations and near blizzard conditions on a track just east of DC, but somewhat west of NYC and Boston. (While Baltimore and Annapolis collected 15-17 inches, Raleigh, NC received 20 inches, about 5 times their seasonal average.)
See Steve Tracton's recap for more on this storm.
THE NORTHEAST SNOWSTORM OF 30-31 DECEMBER 2000
This was a storm that totally bypassed the Washington metropolitan area, although early advance predictions were not nearly so benign. By the time the pre-New Year's Eve storm was over, the entire corridor from central New Jersey, through western Long Island, including NYC, to northern New York and western New England was brought to a standstill by 1-2 feet of snow. Surely, New Year's Eve festivities were seriously affected. In Boston, where there was a changeover to rain, less than an inch of snow accumulated.
What was probably the most frustrating aspect of this storm (to forecasters) was the fact that the western edge of the main snow band had such a sharp cut-off, with the western suburbs of Philadelphia, for example, receiving almost no snow at all while the northeast suburbs got a foot or more.
THE 5-7 MARCH 2001 (NO-SHOW) SNOWSTORM
This storm was notable due to the public reaction--and even outrage--that resulted from the botched forecasts. Computer models on Friday, March 2, were suggesting that near blizzard conditions would develop from VA to Southern New England. NOAA's HPC (Hydrometeorological Prediction Center) said:
THERE MAY BE BEACH EROSION AND COASTAL FLOODING ... ALONG WITH WINDS EXCEEDING GALE FORCE ALONG THE IMMEDIATE COAST. FARTHER INLAND ... MODERATE TO HEAVY SNOW AND BLOWING SNOW FROM VA THRU THE SOUTHERN HALF OF NEW ENGLAND. LOW WIND CHILLS WITH TEMPS GENERALLY IN THE HIGH TEENS TO MID 20S. THERE COULD EVEN BE THUNDERSNOW. SNOW ACCUMULATIONS MAY EXCEED A FOOT FROM NORTHERN AND CENTRAL VIRGINIA NORTHEASTWARD THRU THE MAJOR METROPOLITAN AREAS
Although the storm ultimately did hit parts of New York and New England with heavy snowfall (12-18 inches), it was essentially a no-show in most of the mid-Atlantic, where many schools and businesses announced advance closings due to the predicted blizzard.
In the Philadelphia area, this storm is still known as the John Bolaris Storm. Bolaris, who was the face of the weather for WCAU, (then) NBC4 in Philadelphia, supposedly suggested (during the rating period) on the Wednesday before the expected Sunday-Monday storm that it could be "historic" and that all interests should be prepared.
In a 2008 interview, however, Bolaris says that he only mentioned that the "potential" existed for such a storm. By the time the weekend arrived and he believed, contrary to the NWS, that the storm should be greatly downgraded, the weekend "weather lady" was doing the honors.
Bolaris says he was asked early that Sunday night to support her and explain the genesis of the storm but refused because by then he believed it wouldn't happen. (He was allowed, however, to break in during prime-time to announce that the storm would be a no-show.) I don't know what the other media were announcing at that time. Do you?
The media never seemed to forgive Bolaris, even though, as he tells it, he did nothing wrong. In any event, he left that station subsequently. Some say he was discharged because of all the negative publicity. But on the other hand, as he puts it, "I am in a Hurricane Hunter going on a mission and a captain comes up to me and goes, 'Yeah, there was this weatherman in Philadelphia that predicted like forty-eight inches of snow and they ran him out of town.' And I said, "That would be me and I did not predict forty-eight inches of snow."
Do you remember other forecasting turkeys since 1970? Comment below...
*Unless otherwise noted, most material from this articles was drawn from Kocin and Ucellini's monograph, Northeast Snowstorms, Volume II
(1)National Weather Service monograph, Mid Atlantic Winters, SNOW, WIND, ICE AND COLD
(2) National Weather Service monograph, Mid Atlantic Winters, SNOW, WIND, ICE AND COLD
| December 9, 2010; 10:30 AM ET
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