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21st century skills: another disappointment


I am trying NOT to write off the 21st century skills movement as a sham, but its leaders don’t make it easy.


When Bernie Trilling and Charles Fadel's publisher sent me their new book, “21st Century Skills: Learning for Life in Our Times,” I had hopes. The authors are both members of the board of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, the jacket flap said. They hold important positions at major Silicon Valley companies, Oracle and Cisco Systems, respectively.

The 206-page hardcover book looked nice. It included a DVD with scenes of students and teachers in action. There were pictures of two cute elementary school kids on the cover. Were the 21st century skills people finally going to show us how this idea actually works in the classroom? Would they have data? Would there be lesson plans, and detailed testimony from students and parents and teachers? Were they going to prove wrong those of us who could see nothing in this movement (here is a previous column) but a lot of buzz words and jargon describing principles of teaching and learning that have been with us for many decades?

I wish I could answer those questions positively. A hyper-sensitive author myself, I don’t like to pan books. I write about many books in this column and so am sent many more in the mail. If a quick read tells me the work in question is dreck, I just toss it in the reject pile. Time and space are too precious to be wasted on negativity.

But the phrase “21st century skills” has become so common in conferences and newsletters and journals and luncheon handouts and even presidential speeches, and so lacking in meaning, that I feel an obligation to look carefully at all serious attempts to define it.

Trilling and Fadel have failed to do so in any useful way. I am not saying they are trying to pull something over on us. I see no sign that the Partnership, based in Tucson and Washington, D.C., is using its revenue to buy beach mansions in Bali. They are well meaning people who want to change the world, but they trip over themselves trying to explain how this will happen.

I sense Trilling and Fadel are smart tech guys who just don’t know much about real schools with real kids who have difficulty learning how to read, write and do math. The perspective of much of the book is from thousands of feet up, as if the authors were on a jetliner flying into San Francisco's airport. They can't see the scuffed floors and trash-strewn playground of a public middle school in Oakland, but can use their laptops to write nice sentences about how the six emerging principles of the movement are “vision, coordination, official policy, leadership, learning technology and teacher learning.”

I wish they had at least found an editor who knew enough about schools to weed out the bits of ignorance that pop up throughout the manuscript. Here is an example: “Recent standards and assessment practices have focused students on memorizing the content that will be required for high-stakes exams. These often-stressful exams can determine the future learning and career path of a student and are also used (and often misused) to judge the quality of an entire school and the educators in it.”

They don’t have it all wrong, but two major errors in two sentences is not a good average. Preparation for high-stakes exams such as state tests or the SAT is often narrow and repetitive, but is mostly about recognizing how to attack certain questions and has little, if anything, to do with memorization. Those tests have little effect on learning and career paths. If you can’t pass the low-grade standards of a state high school exit exam, your grades also are likely to be low and your prospects already compromised. Preparation for the SAT never makes enough of a difference to change lives---whatever happens you will get into a college at your level, which is a good thing.

If you've never read a book on education policy or history, or know nothing about advances in classroom technology, “21st Century Skills” might have something you need. The DVD is much better than the book in showing classroom examples of what the authors are writing about. But I wish the disc I found in my book was easier to access. I struggled to play the videos from an assortment of interesting schools.

I wish what I saw was a big departure from project-driven learning as it has been done in U.S. schools for decades. I also yearned to know what portion of the school year was NOT devoted to projects in these schools. Some of the videos suggested that what I was seeing was not a typical day. The book has much material on West Virginia’s school innovation plans, which sound interesting, as new policies often do, but gives few clues to whether they have had any significant impact on classroom results.

The real-world examples written up in the book are set off in shaded boxes, and seemed pitched at about sixth grade level. One of them profiled Deb Austin Brown, a West Virginia fifth grade teacher who participated in a 21st century skills program and learned how to take her students through a project.

“Students chose a successful historical or contemporary leader, researched what helped make that leader a success, and created Web pages that captured their findings,” then shared what they had done with students around the world, the book said. It was a nice story, but other than the web page. it did not seem any different from the group projects my classmates and I did in the middle of the 20th century, mounting our findings on big cardboard displays and showing them off at a special night for parents and classmates.

I am not going to give up on these people. Their hearts are in the right place. For their next project, maybe they could show us what the movement is doing to solve one of our most daunting educational problems---the 40 percent of urban school children who haven’t learned to read well enough by fourth grade to study independently. When I couldn’t find much about that in the book, I looked in the index for the page numbers associated with that important subject: reading.

That word was not indexed. It is a skill that students are going to have to learn in the 21st century, and maybe even a few centuries after that, before our frontal lobes are wired into the great neural worldnet. I still am willing to be convinced that the 21st century skills movement is not a waste of time and energy for fine men like Trilling and Fadel, but this book didn’t win over me or the many other, somewhat more polite, skeptics out here with me.

By Jay Mathews  | October 23, 2009; 7:00 AM ET
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Comments

Jay - this is kind of ridiculous even for you...

Did you talk with the writers - i've heard both speak and they understand a vision for schools that most people (especially educators, parents and students) embrace?

When was the last time you were in a school in oakland - or are you just guessing from thousands of miles away to make your analogy work?

You wouldnt pan a book about Sputnik's landing for not describing every step of the creation of Sputnik. This book, as noted by the Web site, ascertains how a changing and dynamic world requires a changing and dynamic education system. YOu want them to create de-facto national standards/curriculum to reflect this change? I'd prefer if they let practitioners make the decision, and simply provide them with examples of how to do the teaching that gets students prepared for this crazy fastly evolving world.

Sometimes you're just too much of a crank for my taste

Posted by: doctordowntown | October 23, 2009 9:00 AM | Report abuse

The Trilling/Fadel book is a great contribution and will be a terrific resource to teachers, administrators and all education leaders who are working toward a new vision of education that will prepare young people for success in today's world.

The book was written to show that when you integrate skills (such as critical thinking, problem solving and effective communication) into core academic subjects (such as reading, mathematics, history and science), students are more engaged in their learning and content becomes more relevant. This will likely result in lower drop-out rates and increased student achievement and will ensure that, when students graduate, they are able to succeed in college and the workplace. There are numerous examples within the book and on the accompanying DVD that show how educators are doing this. In addition, the book includes an in-depth treatment of the Framework for 21st Century Learning, which was created by the Partnership in consultation with academics, educators, parents and business and civic/community leaders. Currently, 14 states have adopted this framework because they understand the movement is focused on ensuring all students receive a rich education and graduate college and career ready. Even though this is incredibly difficult work, it must happen in all schools for all students, not just a select few. This book provides a vision and roadmap for schools to implement this kind of education. If we fail to provide all students with the knowledge and skills required for success in today’s world, we are doing them an incredible disservice.

Posted by: kenkayp21 | October 23, 2009 9:22 AM | Report abuse

Jay- how very disappointing. I am only half way through the book- but as an educator of 20 years, I am finding the information presented by Trilling and Fadel very useful. Like you, I especially like the Pearson videos that bring to life the concepts presented in the book. What I am surmising from article is your underlying belief that educators are not capable of looking at models of teaching, reflecting on our own practice and improving instruction. In fact, I think you are promoting the stereotype that educators lack professionalism. Here is a stereotype I have after reading your article: that reporters will write controversial drivel to drive traffic to their articles. Now we are even.

Posted by: MelissaxBrown | October 23, 2009 10:17 AM | Report abuse

Sigh. I have read many great books that take you inside the classroom, help you see what choices the teachers made, and why, what worked and what didn't, and why. This one doesn't do that. The DVD clips are better, but still very isolated and raise far more questions than they answer. The movement itself has been bad at explaining to many of the classroom teachers that I correspond with just how its ideas will translate to helping low income kids conquer reading, writing and math, our big problem. If you can cite the pages in the book that you think do that, I will do a blog post quoting you and yr selection, and then see what others think. I think the book is buzz word city, with little that is going to help anyone facing a fourth grade, or an 11th grade, in southeast DC.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | October 23, 2009 12:34 PM | Report abuse


For Melissaxbrown--take a look at past columns. I am a very positive guy, a big optimist, who prefers to write about what is working. But I have my limits, and the way this term 21st century skills is being used is one of them. And I am not alone.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | October 23, 2009 12:38 PM | Report abuse

Au contraire, Mr. Matthews. This book is an inspiration and a godsend. It tells the TRUTH, and moreover it offers a VISION for how to retain students' innate joy in learning, and how to restore the joy of teaching for millions of educators worldwide.

From Silicon Valley to the south side of Chicago, to the sidewalks and back alleys of Harlem, Seoul, Paris, Beijing, and countless other towns and villages on every continent, the world's children are letting us know that schools and adults are letting them down. Too many young people are frustrated, stressed out, fearful and yes, angry that many current school practices seem irrelevant, outdated and inattentive to their needs. Kids, whether they are wealthy or poor, American, Asian, Indian, European or African legitimately wonder whether they're getting the vital skills and knowledge they will need to succeed and thrive in this hypercompetitive, economically dislocated, environmentally degraded, and increasingly violent 21st century world we are bequeathing them.

Kids know there is a better way to learn what they need, and this book is their rallying cry. Thousands upon thousands of caring teachers around the world know there is a better way to reach and teach their students, and this book is their rallying cry as well.

"21st Century Skills" by Trilling and Fadel reminds us what the point of education has always been about since the start of human civilization: to help the next generation develop the skills and absorb the cultural knowledge that allows them to sustain life on this earth.

In the 21st century, when we as a species have so much power to create and to destroy, it is even more vital that we help our young people practice the skills and apply the knowledge that will lead them to understand how to maneuver in this complex world and how to lead dignified, economically self sufficient lives in which they can develop their unique talents and collaborate with each other to help solve the most pressing problems facing our world.

Skill by skill, point by point, this book drills down to the essence and shows the ideals of what educators know in their hearts it is their duty to impart to our young people. "21st Century Skills" respects what kids and teachers have to say and what they can do-- individually and collectively.

Share this book and the DVD with your child and your child's teacher. Unlike Mr. Matthews, undoubtedly the young people will have no problems playing the DVD and being inspired by the exemplary videos of joyful, engaged and deep learning that we should aspire to for all our children.

Posted by: jbk2 | October 23, 2009 12:47 PM | Report abuse

Jay: I was surprised at your resistance to accept the world in which our students learn. Have you been in high performing classrooms that embrace 21st century skills and seen the intense learning that these students do that allow them to master the application of their learning? Have you compared assessments of other countries with those in the United States and seen how too many high performing countries assess learning and application and we relegate our students to spitting out content with no clue about application. There is a reason that the United States has become stagnant and countries are passing us on student achievement. If we do not use this opportunity to incorporate 21st century skills with strong core knowledge in new standards, new assessment, aligned curriculum and professional development, we will stay in the middle or worse the bottom of the pack. We should be cheering Trilling and Fadel for writing about this new vision for America in clear, concise, and real words. I commend this book to every educator who dreams a different dream than the current reality of too many classrooms.

Posted by: Tarheel4 | October 23, 2009 2:27 PM | Report abuse

Don't know the book and don't know anything about the authors, so I can't pass judgment on it or them. But I do know about the "21st century learning" mania that has gripped education since the millennium.

Because the problems of public education are so intractable and because virtually everyone is a stakeholder in the success of public education, there's the endless quest for the magic sluice gate that will create the rising tide for all boats.

Alas, there is no such thing. Learning takes hard work and individual dedication. That fact really hasn't changed ever since Euclid told King Ptolemy of Egypt that "there is no royal road to geometry."

"Twenty-first century learning" is supposed to comprise "21st century skills" and "21st century content." I must confess that I'm not sure what those things are. It seems that "21st century skills" implies a proficiency with technology. But why is it important to learn how to use Twitter or Facebook, when within five years they will surely be obsolete?

And how does "twenty-first century content" differ from any other century's content, unless the course is something like current events or computer science? What is "twenty-first century content" for a course on Shakespeare? I can understand a phrase like "21st century content delivery," but "21st century content" makes no sense to me.

I disagree profoundly with Jay Mathews on his views about open enrollment for AP courses, as he knows. But on the issue of the apparent hollowness of "21st century learning," I think he is right on the money.

I'm not a Luddite: for fourteen years I've been on my school's Technology Committee, and for four years I co-produced (along with two high school colleagues) a podcast on language usage that had an average per-episode audience of 12,000.

But in my lifetime (I'm in my 50's), the most important educational tool will continue to be the book. And the most important skills for students to acquire--21st century or otherwise--will be the ability to read critically and to write cogently.

Posted by: ashevilleshep | October 23, 2009 2:49 PM | Report abuse

for tarheel4--- I have been in many classrooms the last quarter century where good teachers have TRIED to embrace what seemed to be great visions, like 21st century skills, but got so little practical help in figuring out how the vision would work in a real classroom that they eventually gave up, and came to adopt the cynical but realistic view that such visions are not designed to be accessible to classroom teachers, and are often just the fad of the moment. As I said in the review, I hope these guys prove me wrong, and maybe the other good poster will point out parts of the book that do this, and that I somehow missed. We shall see.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | October 23, 2009 3:35 PM | Report abuse

and thanks to ashevilleshep. love to get that email address.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | October 23, 2009 3:37 PM | Report abuse

If the book highlights a project that you did last century except the students are creating webpages instead of cardboard displays then it should be considered 21st Century.

Also, reading does not have to be addressed in a book about 21st Century skills. Don't blame technology if a child can not read by the fourth grade. Blame the education system or the teacher. Technology addresses that with applications like Achieve 3000.

Posted by: roderick | October 24, 2009 8:18 AM | Report abuse

Computers are not a fad.

Posted by: roderick | October 24, 2009 8:19 AM | Report abuse

I appreciate the discussion of the idea of "21st Century Skills" and how or why these should be taught to our children. Often discussions of this topic are focused on making education about learning material that is easily tested.

I often hear experienced teachers and other adults say "I learned this way in school and it worked for me. Why should it be any different today?" I ask, "Do we want to return to using slide rules to do advanced math problems or carbon paper to create multiple copies of a document?"

Seriously - our world is changing. I find students are less worried about trying something new than many adults are. To prepare my students effectively, they must know how to communicate effectively (including reading and writing) as well as collaborate with others. Most business leaders I know expect their employees to solve problems on their own. They do not hire employees based on an "ability to fill in a bubble test." Students who are involved in projects that relate to life have an advantage in such problem solving situations.

I cannot do a project for each standard I teach. My students would be bored if every lesson or unit was done the same. In the last unit, students helped me create questions we could investigate. These young people had incredible insight on what they thought would be appropriate to try to learn. They did experiments and collected data after which they told me which questions they learned answers to. During this lab activity, EVERY student was actively involved in the learning process.This engaged learning is more exciting for students than bookwork or memorization.

Personally, I do not see Technology nor 21st Century Skills as more important than good teachers, curriculum, or standards. In my humble opinion, I think these are a necessary part of a students' learning process. .

21st Century Skills encourages students to become critical thinkers. If this skill is not obtained, individuals may "Google" an answer, but be unable to evaluate which results contain valid information. I would not want a surgeon who lacked the ability to think critically to operate on me.

Posted by: gardenglen | October 24, 2009 7:47 PM | Report abuse

To Jay Mathews and teachers like Ashvilleshep, thank you. To those who are arguing over teachers abilities to learn from DVDs, whether or not the world is changing, computers being a fad, or whether this book actually addresses the needs of students in the 21st century, you missed the point of this article.

Programs, like the one sold by Trilling and Fadel, are just that, a program. At the end of the day, it is one more item for a teacher to add to their bag and use when and if needed. The problem may not be the program (unless it is simply filled with catch phrases and gimmicks), it is how the program is sold to teachers, usually by administrators who have bought into the program. Too often these programs are sold as the end-all-be-all to the needs of struggling students. Assertions are made that if teachers just use the right terms, have the right mindset, and alas, implement this program, then the problems which have plagued education for hundreds of years will disappear. This is nothing more than a fallacy.

Administrators often use programs like Trilling and Fadel's to support vague and lofty goals which they attempt to sell to schools, teachers, and the community. Today we see these lofty, immeasurable goals in statements like: "preparing students to be 21st century citizens" and creating "global learning communities" within the schools. While these catch phrases sound great and look good posted under a school system's vision statement, they do not meet the needs of todays students. What good is creating a "global student" or "citizen" if they don't know that the city 5 miles away is the Nation's Capital? What good is preparing a student for the 21st century if they do not have copies of literature from the 20th century available to them? And hasn't "preparing students for the needs of the future" always been a principle goal of educators? How has that goal changed, other than throwing in the words "21st century?" The goal hasn't changed, but the buzz word has.

Posted by: anorthwhitehead | October 25, 2009 11:29 AM | Report abuse

I haven't read the book, but I appreciate this criticism of the movement. I am working with everything I have as a consultant in an inner city district to help move practitioners toward 21st Century Learning in schools. I see us making very small strides toward these goals of 21st C skills. Honestly, I fear for our country. We are not teaching our students to be independent learners, thinkers or doers. We need less talk and much much more action with regards to this topic.

You mentioned that the authors are players in the Partnership, if so then why are they not talking with Arne Duncan about how to create change? Why are they spending time writing this book? We need champions at the upper most levels of ed to help these ideas trickle down. But as you described their notion of a glorified research report, then they aren't the champions we need for 21st C skills anyway.

As for literacy, I agree with you about the poor literacy skills of our students. But when inner city schools lean on programs that make children choose books to read because of the lexile level or reading level in order to take a test, what are we teaching them? I tell you that they are not learning the richness books have to offer them. They are not learning how to choose their own books and be self directed learners. They are learning how to do school, that teaches them nothing about life outside those walls.

Our students deserve better. They deserve to CHOOSE the best books that INTEREST them, that they WANT to read. They deserve to ask questions about their world and have opportunities to answer them through talking about great literature, concepts and ideas. They deserve authentic opportunities to communicate their ideas, collaborate and PARTICIPATE in their world.

First thing we need to address in (urban) education is why are kids outside lives so disconnected with what is going on at school? Why are schools arranged this way? Each school should be geared to the population that it serves...looking at their needs, socially, culturally and academically and SERVING Children. Not just going by the district book...What on earth do we do to change this machine?

Thank you for the criticism...we need it, we're better for it, and we need to teach our kids to do the same.

Posted by: lesliekm | October 25, 2009 7:39 PM | Report abuse

Jay Mathews wrote:
"and thanks to ashevilleshep. love to get that email address."


Sorry; there’s just no extra time in my schedule for an email colloquy.

I have to deal with these things first:
• 109 student essays to read and critique (with another 35 coming in tomorrow);
• assignments for my online 1:1 learning course to complete;
• about two dozen PEP’s (that’s Personal Education Plans) to fill out for failing students;
• components of my PDP (that’s Personal Development Plan) to work on before meeting with my assistant principal about his recent observation;
• consultations with colleagues to hold in my new (and unsolicited) capacity as a Lead Teacher for the implementation of PLC’s (that’s Professional Learning Communities) at my school;
• a memo about the status of the 1:1 Laptop Initiative to type and send out to my department in my capacity as MTAC (that’s Media and Technology Advisory Committee) representative;
• service hours to calculate and record for National Honor Society students (I’m on the NHS Advisory Board);
• college recommendations to write for a half-dozen of my seniors (who are applying early decision, and must have the recommendations by November 1st);
• writing conferences to schedule with my low-achieving sophomores;
• parents to call about excessive student absences and behavior issues;
• peer edited papers to sort, grade and return (within the next three days);
• report card grades to calculate and record (along with cumulative student attendance records);
• lessons to plan for this week (and reading to do for the lessons, if there’s time).

I also have lunch duty this week.
I also have to go to the store to refill the water bottles for the classroom cooler that I got by writing a grant five years ago.
I also have to run the stadium clock for a sports event.

And that’s just this week.

You see, I don’t just sit around drinking coffee and discussing great literature with my elite group of AP students. I teach standard and honors sophomores as well, and I have far too many non-curricular school duties.

Wish I had the time to talk at length with you about the reality of public education in my state and my district. But I also wish I had more time to be a teacher, instead of a secretary, a social worker, and a low-level bureaucrat.

Posted by: ashevilleshep | October 25, 2009 9:13 PM | Report abuse

I have just ordered the book "21st Century Skills ~ Learning for Life in Our Times" http://www.21stcenturyskillsbook.com/index.php and am elated that Bernie Trilling and Charles Fadel have taken the initiative to co-write this book. This "forward thinking literature" paints the bigger picture of showcasing how all entities within our global society of business and education are transforming their "literacy skill sets" to prepare oneself and our online global communities to be agents of change.

One needs to understand that when educating and preparing our digital native students and our 21st century educators for their life's journey, we have to come to understand that the educational pathway is significantly different that was prepared and instrumentally taught even 10-20 years ago. It is more than just the 3 R's. The tool sets have changed, the career and life skills have changed, and the global collaboration and communication gateways are now open! The Partnership for 21st Century Skills and ISTE NETS has provided us with a teaching and learning landscape, providing all of us an opportunity to be part of this robust, culturally rich and differentiated framework to meet the learning needs of ALL students, ALL educators, and ALL business entities.

This book also encompasses a vast array of viable resources and best practices to support and instill the movement of 21st Century Skills. So many times our educational and business leaders are overwhelmed with day to day tasks of running their organization or agency, that they too forgot the importance of their shared vision and mission of their companies. This book lends itself to assist these "overwhelmed" organizations and leaders within- with refocusing and retooling their efforts on the big picture of global transformation, accountability, shared leadership, researched-based best practices, and the power of voice to share one's expertise, reasoning skills, and insight to cultivate a productive global citizen. (Just as we are doing here today). Great gains in any organization can be accomplished with the collaborative infusion of the 21st century skills framework and the many viable resources that this book has to offer.

Kudos to Charles and Bernie for modeling 21st century skills leadership as a collective vision through this new book "21st Century Skills ~ Learning for Life in Our Times" I greatly appreciate your sharing of your expertise with all of us, and look forward to the many future opportunities and possibilities of working with you as a partnership through our state organization of Wisconsin Educational Media and Technology Association (WEMTA) www.wemta.org.

Naomi Harm
http://blog.innovativeeducator.us

Education is our passport to the future, for tomorrow belongs to the people who prepare for it today.
Malcolm X (1925 - 1965)

Posted by: naomiharm | October 26, 2009 11:06 AM | Report abuse

Count the number of buzz words, catch phrases, and gimmicks in the last posting. And book to sell to boot! That posting is a prime example of the many ways to say a whole bunch of nothing, and a prime example of what is wrong in public schools today.

Many public school teachers are subjected to professional development training which sings the praises of the 21st century rhetoric. Often these classes offer no evidence to support their claims for the need or value of such training. Teachers are offered nothing more than stories, flawed arguements, and comparisons, such as the one between the US public educational system and Chinese or Indian educational systems, as the basis for teaching 21st century skills to "digital natives." When questions are raised, they are often tabled, answered with a generic response, or (I am not joking when I write this) teachers are told to be "creative." Now if that does not cultivate a great global teacher, than I don't know what will.

Great teachers prepare students for the future, regardless of the century, not great programs. Let's get away from these vague and immeasurable goals and money wasting programs.

Posted by: anorthwhitehead | October 27, 2009 6:51 PM | Report abuse

I have not read the book Mr. Mathews has commented on, nor have I heard Trilling or Fadel speak, however, as an affiliate of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills, it is important for me to show my support in favor of its fundamental mission, to provide a framework for teaching and learning in the 21st century.

With its challenges of a difficult economy, global warming, and pandemic illness, this century has begun with a good share of problems. It is becoming clear that as a nation, we need to be educating our students better (seen the newest PISA scores?), we need to be more health conscious (obesity on the rise again?) and we need to figure out how we are going to deal with the health insurance issue - fast. In the U.S. we fail to graduate about 50% of our students from high school. Exactly who are we kidding? While the book may or may not have been as direct or detailed as it could have been, the reason why there is a market for books on 21st century learning is because as a nation, we are still trying to figure out how to help ourselves. Here are some solutions: Pick up a pen. Volunteer. Go for a walk. Recycle. Act globally. Be a global citizen. Care about what the world will will look like 50 years from now or 100. Show innovation. Think. Think outside the box. Come up with creative solutions to keep our kids IN school instead of giving them opportunities to LEAVE. Show initiative. Stand up for things you believe it. Create. Ask for feedback. Write. Speak. Present. Be efficient. Talk. Listen. Learn how to get along with difficult people.

These are all competencies that we need to be able to assess in our students, and they are all addressed in the 21st century movement. It doesn't matter whether it's the 20th, 21st or 31st century. 21C is a movement. It's a buzz word too - So what? It takes initiative to start a movement like that. It's creative. It's empowering. We (globally speaking) need to do whatever it takes to help this nation improve the education system. We also need to do whatever it takes to make sure every child receives an education, a good one, and a global one. It's their right. It's important. Education is the only way out of ignorance. Keep the discussion moving.

Posted by: bduarte1 | October 28, 2009 3:19 AM | Report abuse

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