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AP vs. IB--choosing sides

[This is my Local Living section column for May 13, 2010.]

Anyone stepping into a Washington area public high school these past two weeks would have seen many seniors and juniors (plus a few sophomores and freshmen) with exhausted looks, dragging themselves down the halls. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate testing began last week. The difficult exams, three to five hours long, have become so influential that they are the basis for most high school curricula in this region.

But which program, AP or IB, is better? Many parents ask me this each May. I try to dodge the question. Both programs are top-notch. They offer teenagers a true college experience in high school, taking courses and exams that in many cases are more demanding that the introductory courses in state universities they are designed to mimic.

I would have the same trouble saying who was the better author of the Federalist Papers, Madison or Hamilton, or the best better baseball player, Babe Ruth or Willie Mays. But this is America. We often worry about making the right choice. So I give the best answer I can.

I think IB is slightly better than AP because the exams demand more writing, having no multiple choice questions as AP exams do, and because the IB program includes a 4,000-word essay requirement that AP lacks. Then again, it is easier to get college credit for good AP exam scores because university faculties have been slow to realize that IB is as good as AP. But those professors are coming around, and IB students eventually get their way.

To sum up, it is a close call, and many people disagree with my answer. The heat that the issue generates still surprises me, more than a decade after I started writing about AP vs. IB, and seven years after I wrote a book that I thought would settle the issue: “Supertest” (Open Court). (Not many people have read that book, despite my frequent recommendations.)

Here is an example of the seriousness of the AP vs. IB debate. (Only a few Washington area high schools offer both.) In nine days, I will celebrate the third anniversary of a discussion topic, AP vs. IB, I posted for my Admissions 101 group on washingtonpost.com. Most of my topics have short lives. But that one will not go away. The Admissions 101 participants are so fond of it, and the acerbic relationships they have formed because of it, that it recently had its 7,898th post.

Fortunately, most Washington area parents and educators take this calmly. We have not had an all-out AP vs. IB battle since 1999, when one of the region’s best high schools, W.T. Woodson in Fairfax County, nearly tore itself apart. A principal there started a switch from AP to IB and then took another job. There was chaos. Eventually, a committee of parents and educators voted to stay with AP.

One of my heroes on this issue was Harlan “Harpo” Hanson, a big man with a dry wit who was once both the director of AP for the College Board and a force behind the first big grant for IB in the United States. He had four children. He gave each teen the facts about the two programs and let them decide. Two chose IB. Two chose AP. In each case, Hanson said, they made the right decision.

If you need advice on this, e-mail me at mathewsj@washpost.com. We will figure it out. Each student is different, but they all are lucky to have two great programs pushing them to levels of learning that were not possible for me when I was in high school.

Read Jay's blog every day at http://washingtonpost.com/class-struggle.

Follow all the Post's Education coverage on Twitter, Facebook and our Education web page, http://washingtonpost.com/education.

By Jay Mathews  | May 12, 2010; 10:00 PM ET
Categories:  Local Living  | Tags:  AP easier to get college credit, Advanced Placement vs. International Baccalaureate, IB better exams, IB long essay, IB slightly better  
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Comments

I don't want my tax dollars spent to give ONE RED CENT to this UN program.

And as a teacher I don't want to teach it and pledge to the garbage that is in it!

NO I do NOT support the mission of 'world government'.

Posted by: username | May 12, 2010 11:36 PM | Report abuse

I don't think the IB program is "garbage". I was an IB student in high school (I graduated last June), and while I think AP is better than IB, that is solely because in my opinion, IB students have to work harder for less eventual credit from colleges. It's still a great way to learn. No, by the way, I was not infected by any crazy notions of world government.

The IB program has another merit that wasn't mentioned. We have a lot of military families in the area, and if you end up moving abroad during high school, the IB program is a good way to maintain a semi-cohesive curriculum. I had a friend who moved to Germany for senior year, and all the class requirements and things for her IB diploma were exactly the same, making things much simpler.

Posted by: sarahee | May 13, 2010 1:28 AM | Report abuse

Jay - You said "Fortunately, most Washington area parents and educators take this calmly. We have not had an all-out AP vs. IB battle since 1999, ..."

This is simply false. The problems with the IB science & math curriculum and university acceptance of IB were at the core of the South Lakes redistricting fight.

Posted by: JOMARSH124 | May 13, 2010 7:31 AM | Report abuse

Both programs have merit. However, from beginning to end, IB does a better job of preparing teachers, providing ongoing and relevant training, and the Full Diploma Program is outstanding, rigorous and probably a more in-depth approach to content and college preparation. Another factor that is interesting is the fact that IB tests are scored in various locations around the world. The 4,000 work essay for IB Full Diploma also increases the rigor. No matter the case, encouraging students to enroll in AP and/or IB courses is meritorious and provides a uniques challlenge for students who might, otherwise, not enroll in such a course. For me, it's not only the enrollment, but how do students perform and how are the results used to inform improvements in the programs.

Posted by: lukewes | May 13, 2010 8:02 AM | Report abuse

Why can't we let our kids go to high school during the high school years and college during the college years? Our kids are stressed, exhausted, and burnt out.

I'm sending my older daughter to a private school that got rid of their AP classes. They have rigorous classes, they're just not about the stress and competition of AP.

Posted by: FedUpMom | May 13, 2010 9:39 AM | Report abuse

The IB program and consequent lack of AP courses was a major issue in the South Lakes redistricting fight. And you wrote about it at the time and participated in a thread on your admissions 101. What gives?

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/29/AR2008072902046.html

http://school.uaschools.org/uaibhs/pdf/collegecredit.pdf

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/community/groups/index.html?plckForumPage=ForumDiscussion&plckDiscussionId=Cat%3aa70e3396-6663-4a8d-ba19-e44939d3c44fForum%3a5093b309-eb0a-47e2-b777-ea68b9dd478eDiscussion%3a1e7590c6-9a30-4767-851a-f24c077c820a


Posted by: zelda2 | May 13, 2010 9:58 AM | Report abuse

The problem with IB is, you have to sell your soul to the UN! Jay, why can't you be honest about this program? Not only is it Constructivist (which is why they have to do SO much more work....) it's a political indoctrination program. Peace Education? ARe you kidding me?
If the US high schools cannot offer a rigorous course of studies, that reflects on the poor education our students receive in the public school system.
http://www.channelingreality.com/Niwa/IB/IB_Unraveled_3.28.10_Niwa.pdf

Jay, until you deal with this program honestly, you have NO credibility with me.

Posted by: MOMwithAbrain | May 13, 2010 11:17 AM | Report abuse

As a high school teacher I have seen too many students crying in the halls because of the stress of AP classes. Many students do not belong in those classes and yet that is what they are advised to take.

I do not want my tax dollars paying for high school students to get college credit. Especially at a time when school budgets are so tight and teacher are being terminated and furloughed. Let students enjoy their teen years; there is time enough to be overwhelmed and stressed with things that really matter.

Posted by: 398North | May 13, 2010 11:24 AM | Report abuse

Since I don't teach AP, I wont say one is better than the other. Several good aspects of IB Math are: first, the students have to do work 'outside' the regular class material. In the case of Math Studies, the students have to do a paper with advanced math involved. This is on top of the extended essay that the diploma candidates write. Second, there is no multiple choice part to the externally graded tests. While it is possible to create a multiple choice test that shows the students knowledge, I have seen very few of them. Third, the IB tests concentrate on applications of math as opposed to the memorization of formulas.

I see that our resident gadfly has not appeared yet (although some anonymous 'teacher' has) stating her indoctrination theories, but I am sure that she will buzz in here soon.

Posted by: williamhorkan | May 13, 2010 11:25 AM | Report abuse

My son presents his thesis this week and graduates with honors next Saturday and my daughter just finished freshman year at a selective college. Both took AP courses in high school and got 4's and 5's on the tests, but I told them to take those courses in college anyway. I know both programs well, but I don't believe either is a substitute for college coursework at a good school.

I wanted my children challenged in high school, but there is no way a sophomore (AP Bio at our school) is ready to learn all he could learn in college biology four or more years later. AP Calc allowed him to skip Calc I and II, but he would have anyway based on a placement test. As for AP Lit, books change as we change and the literature course is focused on writing about literature, not the broader writing that occurs in freshman composition. They both took freshman comp and benefited from it as well as courses in literature.

I'm with the many posters who say both programs are strong, but it is more important for kids to love learning and explore thinking than to do this mindless cramming for tests in high school. My daughter played three instruments, but her playing time was severely reduced as she attended study sessions prior to AP tests. What a shame. Our kids need to hike and listen to music--even create some! Where is the opportunity for that if it is all about the competition for scores? And believe me... the kids are competing. It was hard to watch.

Posted by: teacherinNH | May 13, 2010 11:56 AM | Report abuse

For jomarsh14 and zelda2---I did consider mentioning the South Lakes controversy, but it never came near to being "an all-out AP vs. IB battle" as the Woodson High dispute was. The AP vs. IB issues were diluted by concerns about redistricting process and the concentration of low-income students at South Lakes. I don't recall any meeting that ever let the pro-AP and pro-IB folks speak directly to each other, as the Woodson clash did. And no committee with authority ever voted on the AP vs. IB issue in the South Lakes case, as the Woodson case did. I was like comparing the Civil War to the congressional debate over the Missouri compromise, not in the same category of importance.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | May 13, 2010 12:10 PM | Report abuse

Sorry, I meant "IT was like comparing..."

Posted by: Jay Mathews | May 13, 2010 12:15 PM | Report abuse

To those who say that IB teachers have to 'pledge', or sell your soul, to the UN, please show where this is the case. I have been teaching IB for 6 years and I must have missed that part of it.

TeacherinNH,

You have a great point which should be written about further. I think it is possible to learn an advanced topic without multiple hours of homework each night. I think that this is a problem not of the IB or AP programs, but of the teachers. Also, I don't know what other schools do, but I don't have any extra study sessions right before the IB test. The students do study a little more but I don't see any of them not having a life outside of school. I see it as similar to exam week in college. Aga

Posted by: williamhorkan | May 13, 2010 12:26 PM | Report abuse

The tool of the UN and indoctrination of world government posts are comical. I've taught IB History for over ten years and have never been encouraged or told to do anything other than teach the curriculum, which emphasizes depth over breadth and focuses on the same themes any history curriculum should. Conspiracy theorists need not fear the illuminate take over.

As for the difference between IB and AP. I have taught both and for Social Studies I greatly prefer IB. The emphasis on depth of knowledge and choice of questions on exams is much fairer and allows students to show what they know, not what they don't. I have been told by IB math and science teachers the opposite is true in their curriculums. If I had to advise a student which program to take in history, I would say IB in a second.

At this point, any university that does not know what IB is or does not give credit is not worth going to. A recent IB graduate now attending Notre Dame told me one of her professors commented that IB students tend to be more prepared for the university because they can write and analyze.

No program is perfect. IB certainly has its issues, but lets stay in reality and let the John Birch Society save us from world domination.

Posted by: kwilcox | May 13, 2010 2:11 PM | Report abuse

I am getting emails from parents who make clear that this discussion is very helpful to them in advising their kids on which program might be best for them.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | May 13, 2010 5:14 PM | Report abuse

For jomarsh14 and zelda2---I did consider mentioning the South Lakes controversy, but it never came near to being "an all-out AP vs. IB battle" as the Woodson High dispute was.

Jay -
The South Lakes redistricting was no Missouri Compromise. It was The War of South Lakes Aggression. South Lakes and Stu Gibson used raw power to get exactly what they wanted and they didn't care at all about anyone else wanted.

In that aggression, AP/IB was only one of the things South Lakes refused to even consider compromising on.

That said, if you seriously look at the reasons students continue to outplace from South Lakes, you will find AP Math and hard Sciences at the top of the list.

Posted by: JOMARSH124 | May 13, 2010 8:54 PM | Report abuse

As a music teacher, I have been particularly pleased with the curriculum for AP music Theory. I assume that students will need to continue to develop their understanding of how music is structured in college but this is a particularly strong curriculum with a rigorous and comprehensive test. While I am not fully acquainted with the IB music program, the little that I have seen seems nebulous in comparison. Perhaps part of the determination of the relative strengths of the programs revolves around particular subject areas.

Posted by: MCT3 | May 13, 2010 10:43 PM | Report abuse

MCT3, IB music is more "nebulous" because it is flat-out NOT a music theory course. It'd be more accurate to call it a music history class, but even that's not quite actuate. I think it compares very closely to the "History and Analysis of Musical Styles" class that is part of the music degree at my university now- part history, part structure, part listening and analysis. It also has a strong focus on non-western music and comparing it to western music. It also has a requirement of performance and/or composition involved.

I learned a lot from IB Music. The music faculty at my high school encouraged taking both IB music and music theory(not AP), although I was unable to for scheduling conflict reasons.

Posted by: sarahee | May 14, 2010 11:52 PM | Report abuse

IB is a terribly run, terribly organized program. It should be removed from all of our schools, particularly Fairfax County. IB teaches circularly around many core concepts and produces long projects that have little meaningful connection to advanced coursework.

Note that while kids are trying to advance themselves as much as they can in high school, IB holds them back by offering a bizarre 2 tiered Standard Level and Higher Level sequence in most of its core core curriculum. The math sequence is so convoluted that my sister ended up taking calculus twice, the second time while she was enrolled in a calculus III class. If her school had offered AP, the sequencing would have been simple.

Just stick with AP, it is good, it allows teachers flexibility on what to teach, but it is rigorous and comparable in many areas to known college classes.

Posted by: quandary87 | May 16, 2010 2:39 PM | Report abuse

If the purpose is to take a course that is "college equivalent",AP is the closest you'll come. IB never says that it is like taking a college class -- it is for preparing for college. So, to say IB is better than AP is really answering a question that's not being asked.

My wife and I continually talk to students at IB schools who feel ripped off that the top Virginia schools don't give credit to the IB SL courses. The most recent conversation was this weekend with South Lakes parents.

Jay misleads the reader into saying that the IB kids eventually "get their way." Those kids are likely getting placed out of those college requirements, but they don't get credit. They must still take 120 credits to graduate, which normally takes four years.

Many kids are now entering UVA with over a year of college credit. They can graduate in three years. In dollars, how much is that worth? I was astounded to be told by UVA that over a third of the students are double majoring. How are they doing that? Well, instead of graduating in three years, they are likely using their AP credits to double major and graduate while taking normal course loads.

Jay also doesn't reveal that top colleges merely want you to take the "most rigorous course load your school offers". In an AP school, that's AP. In an IB school, its the DIPLOMA PROGRAM. Just taking IB courses is not enough to be "most rigorous". It is the DIPLOMA that must be achieved. How many kids in IB schools get the DIPLOMA? About 10%. Ten percent! The number of athletes (or others with significant outside activities) that have the time to take the DIPLOMA program? Few and far between.

No one talks about that!

Jay indicates that the South Lakes discussion was muddied because of race. He's wrong and very misleading. The problem is that the school administrators and Jay himself will not believe that there really are significant problems with the fact that colleges do not normally give credit to IB SL courses. A year of college saved is something like $30K. That's a big deal. Being able to double major without killing yourself in college is a big deal. Taking the "most rigorous courseload" AND having significant outside activities is a big deal.

Many of the kids who were redistricted were on a track to take Calculus BC as Juniors, leading to actual college courses (Matrix Algebra and Multivariable Calculus) as Seniors (incidentally, these classes probably are NOT included in the Challenge Index, either). The IB Program in Fairfax County offers NOTHING like that. That's a big deal!

It never ceases to amaze me how consistently misleading all the IB arguments are. If people really want to know the issues with IB vs. AP, they need to talk to the college admissions people. For better or worse, the U.S. college system is the model for the world and AP tries to structure itself based on those requirements. IB doesn't, and they should just leave it at that.

Posted by: MG14 | May 17, 2010 8:31 AM | Report abuse

If the purpose is to take a course that is "college equivalent",AP is the closest you'll come. IB never says that it is like taking a college class -- it is for preparing for college. So, to say IB is better than AP is really answering a question that's not being asked.

My wife and I continually talk to students at IB schools who feel ripped off that the top Virginia schools don't give credit to the IB SL courses. The most recent conversation was this weekend with South Lakes parents.

Jay misleads the reader into saying that the IB kids eventually "get their way." Those kids are likely getting placed out of those college requirements, but they don't get credit. They must still take 120 credits to graduate, which normally takes four years.

Many kids are now entering UVA with over a year of college credit. They can graduate in three years. In dollars, how much is that worth? I was astounded to be told by UVA that over a third of the students are double majoring. How are they doing that? Well, instead of graduating in three years, they are likely using their AP credits to double major and graduate while taking normal course loads.

Jay also doesn't reveal that top colleges merely want you to take the "most rigorous course load your school offers". In an AP school, that's AP. In an IB school, its the DIPLOMA PROGRAM. Just taking IB courses is not enough to be "most rigorous". It is the DIPLOMA that must be achieved. How many kids in IB schools get the DIPLOMA? About 10%. Ten percent! The number of athletes (or others with significant outside activities) that have the time to take the DIPLOMA program? Few and far between.

No one talks about that!

Jay indicates that the South Lakes discussion was muddied because of race. He's wrong and very misleading. The problem is that the school administrators and Jay himself will not believe that there really are significant problems with the fact that colleges do not normally give credit to IB SL courses. A year of college saved is something like $30K. That's a big deal. Being able to double major without killing yourself in college is a big deal. Taking the "most rigorous courseload" AND having significant outside activities is a big deal.

Many of the kids who were redistricted were on a track to take Calculus BC as Juniors, leading to actual college courses (Matrix Algebra and Multivariable Calculus) as Seniors (incidentally, these classes probably are NOT included in the Challenge Index, either). The IB Program in Fairfax County offers NOTHING like that. That's a big deal!

It never ceases to amaze me how consistently misleading all the IB arguments are. If people really want to know the issues with IB vs. AP, they need to talk to the college admissions people. For better or worse, the U.S. college system is the model for the world and AP tries to structure itself based on those requirements. IB doesn't, and they should just leave it at that.

Posted by: MG14 | May 17, 2010 8:32 AM | Report abuse

For MG14---You make some good points, but two don't wash:
1. I have been talking to selective college admissions officers about IB for a decade, and the notion that they only respect IB kids who get the diploma is not correct. If you have a quote from an actual admissions officer saying that, please tell me whom so I can check it out. This popped up in the Woodson controversy, with the AP side making a similar charge that a UVA officer had said something of the sort. I tracked him down and he denied it, saying what they all have told me: they want to see the kid taking on a college challenge, which means three to five AP or IB courses and tests. You need to take 6 IB tests to get the diploma. Admissions officers are happy to see that, but they will put a kid with just 4 IB courses and tests on the same level as a kid with 4 AP courses and tests, and they know the IB courses and tests have some strengths that AP does not have, which is why AP is making its science courses more like IB.
2. You say: "Jay himself will not believe that there really are significant problems with the fact that colleges do not normally give credit to IB SL courses." Some readers have gotten very good at pushing certain buttons that get my goat, and I have resolved to react more calmly. In yr case I suspect you have resisted a slavish devotion to reading everything I write, which is very healthy for you. So I would just suggest you google my name and "IB Standard Level" and see the campaign I have been waging for several years, in my IB book Supertest, and in my columns, against what I have said many times is the appalling cluelessness of colleges on this issue. It is a scandal for them to discriminate against IB SL courses in the way they do, without ever being able to explain to me why they do it, and thank goodness Virginia IB directors and many students, particularly those at UVA, are getting organized and doing something about it.

Posted by: Jay Mathews | May 17, 2010 2:13 PM | Report abuse

For Jay,

I recently went to UVA and heard the "most rigorous program offered" as a mantra by the tour and the alumni people. This is echoed by virtually everyone I've spoken to who have sent their kids to college over the past year, including a parent who has one child who graduated from an AP school and one who is currently at an IB school.

Remember that the IB classes are split into the HL and the SL. The Diploma students have a minimum of HL courses to take and the non-diploma have no requirement. So there IS a difference between the levels.

Of course, the more of the "rigorous" courses a student takes the better, and there probably are no real "rules". But these top universities really push the kids to take the hardest of the hard. My child will graduate with probably 10 AP courses and UVA is pushing him to take an 11th!

On the second point, I do recognize that you've complained about the lack of college credit the SL courses get. You do. But if the problem of college credit were significant enough, you would say that you'd prefer AP over IB and not the other way around. Whether IB is a more thoughtful and harder test than AP really is beside the point because, like it or not, introductory college courses are often NOT that "thoughtful and hard". AP seems to be just trying to mirror the college curricula. IB isn't. For the vast majority of parents of advanced students, emulating a college class (and gettng college credit) is a much more important issue than just having the hardest test. College credit not only gives parents a huge economic benefit, but also a peace of mind that the course is in line with college standards.

I'm personally not sure why the colleges need to be clued in. The U.S. college system seems to be one of the top of the world. It seems the high schools should be trying to structure their curricula around the colleges (like AP does) than the colleges trying to change the standards to what the high schools do. The last time I looked, IB had no college academicians on their board of trustees (maybe one). The College Board is chock full of them. I have to say that the campaign you're waging hasn't gotten so far mainly because IB hasn't felt a need to really push it. If it was that important to them, they'd make sure it got done.

I don't deny that IB is a decent program. However, the amount of information on issues like this is often suppressed significantly by the school system personnel. These things matter.

Posted by: MG14 | May 18, 2010 9:54 AM | Report abuse

For MG14--- very well said. Many people agree with you. But as you have noticed, the College Board is now changing its AP science courses and exams, and will do the same in other subjects later, to be more like IB and LESS like the college intro courses that AP has mimicked. The College Board folk say the colleges are on board with this and will likely make similar changes. I am not so sure. What do you think?

Posted by: Jay Mathews | May 18, 2010 2:28 PM | Report abuse

Maybe I was just more fortunate than most school districts, but I took both IB and AP courses in high school. AP tests were almost considered practices for IB exams/diplomas.

In my experience and opinion, IB is the better program for an education. If you just want some easy college credit, take AP.

Posted by: portorikan | May 18, 2010 5:14 PM | Report abuse

Oh lord, should I weigh in on this? Yes.

I am a science teacher who has been trained in and taught both AP and IB Chemistry. In my opinion, IB is far superior primarily because of the level of depth required and the fact that students actually have to demonstrate that they can do science. I appreciate the requirement to present a portfolio of laboratory work in addition to a multidisciplinary project that focuses on application. For me, AP is too focused on the test and trying to cram as many facts as possible into a kids head instead of any real comprehension of the material. The fact that it only takes about a 60-65% correct on the AP exam to achieve a 5 in Chemistry speaks to the level of minutia tested and not the level of depth necessary to demonstrate mastery.

Posted by: scinerd1 | May 18, 2010 9:59 PM | Report abuse

It really doesn't matter whether the AP test is being re-designed to a style more like the IB, nor does it matter whether the IB goes into more depth. What matters is that the AP tests are constructed with the guidance of college administrators to ensure that they reflect introductory college curricula (so perhaps many of the courses in college are changing).

Having a harder test is fine if the student was not going to proceed to college. But I figure my kids will tackle harder tests as they progress through their college career. In the meantime,allowing my kid to graduate early, double major, or have an easier workload (because of the college credits) is a big issue.

If IB would pay the same attention, then they would eliminate the criticism. This is not a new issue, it goes back decades. But the Trustees of the IBO are consistently made up of non-US college educators. So, it's not a big issue to them.

We've talked not only to IB specific school administrators (3 different schools), but also the county administrators about the ups and downs of the IB program. The county administrators should be very clear that this is a big disadvantage. In meetings I've attended with county administrators, they border on dishonesty, answering only questions as they are specifically asked. Very sad.

Posted by: MG14 | May 19, 2010 7:58 AM | Report abuse

It really doesn't matter whether the AP test is being re-designed to a style more like the IB, nor does it matter whether the IB goes into more depth. What matters is that the AP tests are constructed with the guidance of college administrators to ensure that they reflect introductory college curricula (so perhaps many of the courses in college are changing).

Having a harder test is fine if the student was not going to proceed to college. But I figure my kids will tackle harder tests as they progress through their college career. In the meantime,allowing my kid to graduate early, double major, or have an easier workload (because of the college credits) is a big issue.

If IB would pay the same attention, then they would eliminate the criticism. This is not a new issue, it goes back decades. But the Trustees of the IBO are consistently made up of non-US college educators. So, it's not a big issue to them.

We've talked not only to IB specific school administrators (3 different schools), but also the county administrators about the ups and downs of the IB program. The county administrators should be very clear that this is a big disadvantage. In meetings I've attended with county administrators, they border on dishonesty, answering only questions as they are specifically asked. Very sad.

Posted by: MG14 | May 19, 2010 8:06 AM | Report abuse

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